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文檔名稱: 翻譯和文化:從文化角度翻譯英語和中文之間的習語
文檔語言: 中英文(已翻譯)
文檔類型: rar
文件大小: 471.56 KB
英文單詞數: 3000
中文字數: 3000
整理時間: 2018-03-09

Translation and Culture: Translating Idioms between English and Chinese from a Cultural Perspective

     摘要——翻譯不僅是一種跨語言交際,而且是一種跨文化傳遞,涉及SL文化和TL文化的比較研究。 對于翻譯文化特性,特別是成語時,提出了兩個標準,信息性和有效性,由此建議三種翻譯方法:1)直譯; 2)帶有腳注或解釋性短語的字面翻譯; 3)等效或對應的TL成語。 根據不同的背景和目的,熟練使用這些方法有助于促進英語和中文之間的文化交流。 這種貢獻反過來又旨在進一步深入研究文化與翻譯之間的關系。

Abstract—Translation is not only an interlingual communication, but a cross-cultural transfer, which involves a comparative study of the SL culture and TL culture. In translating cultural specificities, especially idioms, two criteria are proposed, informativeness and effectiveness, by which three translation methods are thus suggested: 1) literal translation 2) literal translation with footnotes or explanatory phrases 3) equivalent or corresponding TL idioms. A skillful use of those methods, subject to different contexts and purposes, serves to promote cultural exchange between English and Chinese. This contribution, in turn, aims to usher in further in-depth study of relations between culture and translation.

 

關鍵詞:文化,翻譯,成語,信息性,有效性

Index Termsculture, translation, idioms, informativeness, effectiveness

 

I. 語言,文化和翻譯

1. LANGUAGE, CULTURE AND TRANSLATION

     傳統上,翻譯被認為是一種跨語言交際,而一些翻譯理論家,如漢斯·維米爾(Hans J. Vermeer),強烈反對翻譯的概念只是一種語言問題,他認為,翻譯是用作文化傳遞或跨文化交際(Bassnett Lefevere1990)。

Translation has traditionally been perceived as an interlingual communication, whereas some translation theorists, like Hans J. Vermeer, are vigorously against the conception of translation as simply a matter of language but view translation primarily as a cross-cultural transfer or intercultural communication (Bassnett & Lefevere, 1990).

 

     對這種類型的跨文化交際的探索首先被一個主要問題困擾,這個問題是對文化的模糊和有趣的概念的分歧。文化的定義超過200種,每種都是從自己的角度來定義的。經典的定義是由文化人類學之父Edward Burnett Tylor1920)提出的:

The probe into this type of intercultural communication is first beset by a major problem caused by the disagreement over the ambiguous and intriguing concept of culture. The definitions of culture amount to over 200, each from its own perspective. The classic definition is presented by Edward Burnett Tylor (1920), father of cultural anthropology:

     以其廣泛的民族志學意義來看,文化或文明是包括知識,信仰,藝術,道德,法律,習俗和人類作為社會成員獲得的任何其他能力和習慣的復雜整體。 (第1頁)

Culture, or civilization, taken in its broad, ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. (p.1)

     這是一個全包的定義,這是被廣泛地認為他對人類學和宗教研究的貢獻之一。

It is an all-inclusive definition, one of his most widely recognized contributions to anthropology and the study of religion.

     文化的一些定義與翻譯有直接關系。美國人類學家Ward H. Goodenough認為,文化是人們所想的事物的形式,他們對感知、關系和反過來解釋他們的模型。作為翻譯功能主義方法的一個總體起點,它首先被引入跨文化交際的研究,并由Göhring稍作修改。在Göhring觀點的基礎上,Vermeer突出了文化的以下特征:

Some definitions of culture have a direct bearing on translation. Ward H. Goodenough, an American ethnologist, maintains that culture is the forms of things that people have in mind, their models for perceiving, relating, and otherwise interpreting them (Nord, 1997). It has served as a general starting point for functionalist approaches to translation, first introduced into the study of cross-cultural communication and slightly modified by Göhring. On the basis of Göhring’s perception, Vermeer accentuates the following features of culture:

a)動態品質,注重人的行為和行為;

a)  dynamic qualities, focusing on human action and behavior

b)全面性,將文化視為確定任何人類行為或行為(包括語言)的復雜系統;和

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